Decolonise This!

Decolonise This! is an educational video series contributing to a global debate on the legacies of European colonialism, imperialism, racial slavery and genocide.

Decolonise This! brings theories from the Radical South, as well as, radical theorists from the North, to an audience working in the “humanitarian and international development” sectors.

Intro

Nour

Nour
This is the introduction to the Decolonise This!-Series, explaining the need for and the work of decolonial thought.

Find out more about Nour (they/them)

Episode 1

Frantz Fanon

Colonialism as Violence

frantz fanon

This episode features the work of Martinican psychiatrist and philosopher Frantz Fanon, whose understanding of colonialism as violence marked a shift in how we conceptualise colonialism and its aftermath today.

Episode 2

Frantz Fanon

Colonialism as White Supremacy

frantz fanon
This episode looks at another of Frantz Fanon’s ideas – the concept of colonialism as white supremacy. This idea has shaped much thought in the decolonial space, as well as calls to decolonise aid.

Episode 3

Aimé Césaire

Colonialism as Fascism

Aimé Césaire
This episode looks at Martiniquan poet, author, and politician Aimé Césaire’s concept of colonialism as facism. This episode explores Césaire’s role as one of the major thinkers in the Négritude movement.

Episode 4

Toni Morrison

Racism as Fascism

Toni Morrison
This episode explores the work of American novelist and Nobel Prize winner Toni Morrison. It features the many faces of settler-/colonialism and slavery through Morrison’s understanding of ‘Racism as Fascism’.

Episode 5

Steve Biko

Colonialism as White Liberalism and Apartheid

steve biko
This episode explores the work of South African anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko and his conceptualisation of white liberalism and apartheid.

The next episode coming up soon…

glossary and bibliography

GLOSSARY

Medical/pharmaceutical apartheidrefers to unequal access to medical treatment, medicines, and pharmaceutical products, often along racial, ethnic, geographic or class lines. Pharmaceutical companies may choose to price much-needed products at high rates, making them unobtainable to whole demographics and groups. Alternatively, Euro-American health authorities may argue that it is ‘impractical’ to provide certain treatments or medicines to communities in particular geographic locations.  
 
Contractually forced laboursometimes referred to as ‘forced labour’, contractually forced labour refers to instances in which individuals, families or whole communities are coerced to work via intimidation, violence, accrued debt or other forms of blackmail, such as the retention of identity papers.  
 
Neoliberalismrefers to a dominant politic-economic ideology which emphasises the value of free market competition and economic growth to advance human progress. It promotes minimal state intervention in economic and social affairs and defines individuals as consumers in a market system.

GLOSSARY

Petty bourgeoisie – a French term (petite bourgeoisie) referring to a social class that sits between the middle and lower classes. Historically, this class comprised small merchants and semi-autonomous peasants. Marxist thinkers often use the term in a derogatory manner, stating that the petty bourgeoisie is influenced by and seeks to identify itself with the haute (high) bourgeoisie.

Heteropatriarchy – is a term used to describe a socio-political system in which heterosexual, cisgender males dominate cisgender females and people of other gender identities and sexual orientations.

Pathologize – refers to the representation of a person or group as medically diseased or psychologically abnormal.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Resources Books

Frantz Fanon, Peau Noire, Masques Blancs/ Black Skin, White Masks, 1952/1967.

Frantz Fanon, Les Damnés de la Terre/ The Wretched of The Earth, 1961/1963.

Frantz Fanon, L’An V de la Révolution Algérienne / A Dying Colonialism, 1959/1967.

Frantz Fanon, J. Khalfa and R. Young (Anthology Editors), S. Corcoran (Translator), Alienation and Freedom, 2018.

Lewis R. Gordon, What Fanon Said: A Philosophical Introduction to His Life and Thought, 2015.

Nasser Rego, Reading Fanon in Palestine/Israel, 2012, https://www.jadaliyya.com/De-tails/25570

“What Did Cedric Robinson Mean by Racial Capitalism?,” 2017, Boston Review: https://bostonreview.net/articles/robin-d-g-kelley-introduction-race-capitalism-justice
and the response by Peter James Hudson:
“Racial Capitalism and the Dark Proletariat,” 2018, Boston Review: https://bostonreview.net/forum_response/peter-james-hudson-racial-capitalism-and

Tammam Aloudat, The damage aid workers can do – with just their words, N Opinion, https://www.thenationalnews.com/opinion/comment/the-damage-aid-workers-can-do-with-just-their-words-1.1190907?fbclid=IwAR0jcnhG4jrUa45TXDh9jF1tHsIhbUUM6c0igrNT-JmayNvcVZhcoXP-SVh0

Movie Recommendations

The Battle of Algiers, by Gillo Pontecorvo (1966) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vhhoS3zOskE

Concerning Violence: Nine Scenes from the Anti-Imperialist Self-Defense, by Göran Hugo Olsson (2014). http://concerningviolence.com

Geographies of Racial Capitalism with Ruth Wilson Gilmore – An Antipode Foundation Film: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2CS627aKrJI

Robin D. G. Kelley – What is Racial Capitalism and Why Does It Matter? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=–gim7W_jQQ

GLOSSARY

Manichean – refers to a worldview in which people view things as inherently dualistic and either good or bad.

Dehistorisised – to deprive of historical context.

Epidermalisation – the internalisation of race and colour onto one’s skin

Abjection – is a concept in critical theory referring to becoming cast off and separated from norms and rules, especially on the scale of society and morality. racial eugenics

Miscegenation – refers to sexual or romantic relationships between people of different races. It is typically associated with historical laws that forbade such relationships.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Resources and Links

Frantz Fanon, Peau Noir, Masques Blancs/ Black Skin, White Masks, 1952/1967.

Frantz Fanon, Les Damnées de la Terre/ The Wretched of The Earth, 1961/1963.

Frantz Fanon, L’An V de la Révolution Algérienne/ A Dying Colonialism, 1959/1967.

Frantz Fanon, J. Khalfa and R. Young (Anthology Editors), S. Corcoran (Translator), Alien-ation and Freedom, 2018.

Lewis R. Gordon, What Fanon Said: A Philosophical Introduction to His Life and Thought, 2015.

Simone Brown, The Surveillance of Blackness, 2015.

https://www.statista.com/chart/3441/countries-never-invaded-by-britain/

https://www.mapuche-nation.org/english/main/benetton/main/info.htm

Recommended Movies on Whiteness and Colonial Rule

Bacurau (2019) by Kleber Mendonça Filho and Juliano Dornelles.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LKTejyk9ZIA
Ashkenaz (2007) by Rachel Leah Jones.
https://vimeo.com/274377308
https://www.trabelsiproductions.com/ashkenaz

GLOSSARY

Négritude – a movement and framework of critique and literary theory developed during the 1930s that aimed to cultivate “Black consciousness” across Africa and its diaspora.

Surrealism – a cultural and artistic movement that emerged in in the aftermath of World War I in which artists depicted unnerving, illogical scenes and developed techniques to allow the unconscious mind to express itself.

Habitus – socially-ingrained habits, dispositions and skills relating to the way a person perceives the world around them.

Universalism – a philosophical and theological concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.

Epistemicide – the destruction or loss of existing knowledge.

Thingification – a concept Césaire used to describe the material and cultural relationship in colonial capitalism between coloniser and colonised

Pogrom – a violent riot incited with the aim of massacring or expelling an ethnic or religious group, particularly Jews.

Eugenic – a set of beliefs or desires centred on “improving” the human race using genetics.

Pedantry – obsessive concern with minor rules.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Anna Younes, the author of this summary, has used the French original Nègre for citations where the N-word was used in the English translation. And finally, the reason for Göring’s stationing in Haiti was the imperial presence by the German empire in the early 20th century by way of trade and infrastructure construction.

Aimé Césaire, On Colonialism, 1955 (foreword by Robin Kelley). https://files.libcom.org/files/zz_aime_cesaire_robin_d.g._kelley_discourse_on_colbook4me.org_.pdf

Aimé Césaire, Disours sur le colonialisme, 1955 (original). https://www.larevuedesressources.org/IMG/pdf/CESAIRE.pdf

Boaventure de Sousa Santos, Epistemologies of the South – Justice Against Epistemicide, 2014.

Benjamin Madley, From Africa to Auschwitz: How German South West Africa Incubated Ideas and Methods Adopted and Developed by the Nazis in Eastern Europe, European History Quarterly, Vol. 35, 3, pp. 429-464, 2005.

Elizabeth R. Baer, The Genocidal Gaze – From German South West Africa to the Third Reich, 2018.

Gary Wilder, Freedom Time – Negritude, Decolonization, and the Future of the World, Duke University, 2015.

Bas Hofstraa, et all., The Diversity–Innovation Paradox in Science, https://nlp.stanford.edu/pubs/hofstra2020innovation.pdf, 2020.

André Breton, et all., Murderous Humanitarianism, (translated by Samuel Beckett) Online English version: https://criticallegalthinking.com/2010/11/24/murderous-humanitarianism/, 1932.

Susanne Zantop, Colonial Fantasies Conquest, Family, and Nation in Precolonial Germany, 1770-1870, 1997.

David Olusoga and Casper W. Erichsen, The Kaiser’s Holocaust: Germany’s Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism, 2010.

German Colonial Newspaper/ Deutsche Kolonialzeitung (DKZ, Organ der Deutschen Kolonialgesellschaft), Heft 1/Januar 1921, S. 9. https://www.freiburg-postkolonial.de/Seiten/DKZ1921-Nr01-S9.htm

Hans Brandt, Franz-Josef Strauß: „Ich bin ein Südwester!“, taz, https://taz.de/Franz-Josef-Strauss-Ich-bin-ein-Suedwester/!1854115/, 1988.

Der Spiegel, Seid nett zu den armen Namibia-Deutschen, 1978. www.spiegel.de/politik/seid-nett-zu-den-armen-namibia-deutschen-a-af95b7ed-0002-0001-0000-000040606709

Woodruff Smith, Friedrich Ratzel and the Origins of Lebensraum, German Studies Review, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 51-68, 1980.

Mahmood Mamdani, When Victims Become Killers. Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, 2001.

Brenda Gayle Plummer, The Metropolitan Connection: Foreign and Semiforeign Elites in Haiti, 1900-1915, Latin American Research Review, Vol. 19, No. 2 (1984), pp. 119-142.

Marilyn Séphocle, Germany’s Challenge to the Monroe Doctrine, Pouvoirs dans la Caraïbe, 13, 2002, 177-190.

Mamadou Badiane, Suzanne Césaire: The Unknown Mother of Antillanité, Terremoto, 2020. https://terremoto.mx/en/revista/suzanne-cesaire-madre-desconocida-de-la-antillanidad/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Administrative_divisions_of_France
https://globalization.gc.cuny.edu/committee-director/

GLOSSARY

Palisade a palisade refers to a fence of wooden stakes or iron railings, which form an enclosure or defence.

Ad hominem refers to an argument or reaction that is directed against a person or their attributes, instead of the position they hold or the argument they are maintaining.

Serialize to arrange, publish or broadcast something in a series or regular instalments.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

“Racism and Fascism” by Toni Morrison.
Source: The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 64, No. 3, Myths and Realities: African Americans and the Measurement of Human Abilities (Summer, 1995), pp. 384-385.
https://www.leeannhunter.com/gender/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Morrison-article.pdf

Video of her speech in full:
Howard University 128th Anniversary, Toni Morrission delivered the 128th convocation address at Howard University, 1995 – https://www.c-span.org/video/?63683-1/howard-university-128th-anniversary

“Recitatif” Review: Toni Morrison on Race and Culture – https://www.nytimes.com/2022/01/28/books/review/toni-morrison-recitatif.html

Toni Morrison on editing and meeting Angela Davis – https://blogs.cul.columbia.edu/rbml/2022/01/18/toni-morrisons-memo-on-angela-davis/

“Toni Morrison: A radical ancestor” – https://www.newframe.com/toni-morrison-a-radical-ancestor/

Wall, Cheryl A. (Winter 2012). “Reading The Black Book: Between the Lines of History”. Arizona Quarterly: A Journal of American Literature, Culture, and Theory. 68 (4): 105–130.

Angela Davis and Toni Morrison Literacy, Libraries and Liberation (2014)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zLR_TcGHzRU

Toni Morrison interview | American Author | Mavis on Four | 1988
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UAqB1SgVaC4

Toni Morrison Beautifully Answers an “Illegitimate” Question on Race (Jan. 19, 1998) | Charlie Rose
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-Kgq3F8wbYA

Fatima El-Tayeb, European Others. Queering Ethnicity in Postnational Europe. University of Minnesota Press, 2011 (German translation: Unrast Verlag, 2015)

GLOSSARY

Amorphous lacking a clear or defined structure or focus.

Manichean refers to a worldview in which people view things as inherently dualistic and either good or bad.

Ipso facto  translates as ‘by the fact itself’. Can be used in the same was as ‘because of that fact’.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Articles and Books:

Steve Biko, “I write what I like,” Heinemann African Writers Series, 1978.

International Criminal Court, Rome Statute International Criminal. Available at: https://www.icc-cpi.int/sites/default/files/RS-Eng.pdf [last accessed December 2022], 1998.

Derek Hook, “Retrieving Biko: a black consciousness critique of whiteness.” African identities, 2011, Vol. 9, No. 1.

Samir Amin, “The Liberal Virus – Permanent War and the Americanization of the World,” Monthly Review Press, New York, 2004.

Isaac Kamola, “Steve Biko and a critique of global governance as white liberalism,” African Identities, 2015, Vol. 13, No. 1.

Steve Biko Foundation, “Steve Biko: The Black Consciousness Movement – The SASO, BCP and BPC Years”, [last accessed August 2022]. https://artsandculture.google.com/story/steve-biko-the-black-consciousness-movement-steve-biko-foundation/GQWBgt1iWh4A8A?hl=en, Online.

Mubarak Aliyu, Steve Biko and the philosophy of Black consciousness, 2021, LSE Blogs.https://blogs.lse.ac.uk/africaatlse/2021/08/19/steve-biko-philosophy-of-black-consciousness-theology-south-africa-bio/

Anonymous Writer, The Unbearable Whiteness of Philanthropy in 2022, 2022. https://waitinginline.org/2022/05/12/the-unbearable-whiteness-of-philanthropy-in-2022-%EF%BF%BC/?utm_content=buffer0fb01&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_campaign=buffer

Tammam Aloudat, The damage aid workers can do – with just their words. N Opinion. [last accessed August 2022] https://www.thenationalnews.com/opinion/comment/the-damage-aid-workers-can-do-with-just-their-words-1.1190907?fbclid=IwAR0jcnhG4jrUa45TXDh9jF1tHsIhbUUM6c0igrNTJmayNvcVZhcoXP-SVh0

Videos of Steve Biko:

https://consciousness.co.za/steve-biko-mini-biography-speaks-black-consciousness-movement/